Once Upon a Time in Leeds Central Library

  • by Rhian Isaac, Collections Manager, Leeds Central Library

“Fairy tales are more than true: not because they tell us that dragons exist, but because they tell us that dragons can be beaten.”  – Neil Gaiman

During Library Fest in February we delivered an array of fairy tale related events from children’s theatre performances to film screenings. Abbey House Museum is also currently displaying a Fairy Tale and Fantasy exhibition which you can visit until December 2017. The popularity of these events with people of all ages show that there is an enduring fascination with magic and fairy tales.

At Central Library we are lucky to have wonderful examples of fairy tale literature from all over the world in our collections and this post will tell you a little bit more about some of these items.

We have all heard of fairy tales, but what actually are they? They are often thought of as a type of folk tale, and were popular stories that would have been passed down by word of mouth. Fairy tales have recurring recognisable characters and motifs, such as evil stepmothers, princesses and giants and they must have some magical element or invoke a sense of wonder.   It is also a prerequisite for fairy tales to have a happy ending and the novelist Italo Calvino called them ‘consolatory fables’. Many of them offer hope from poverty, cruelty and oppression. An obvious example is the servant Cinderella winning over her prince whilst her cruel stepsisters are punished for how badly they treat her. As Marina Warner says in her book Once Upon a Time, ‘Fairy tales evoke every kind of violence, injustice, and mischance, but in order to declare it need not continue’.

Hans Christian Andersen

Fairy Tales by Hans Christian Andersen, part of the Henry Collection

One of the most famous fairy tale writers, Hans Christian Andersen, could have been a character in one of his own stories. Born the son of a poor cobbler and a washerwoman, he eventually worked his way up the social ladder and ingratiated himself with the nobility. He was always ashamed about his impoverished background and once he had become successful he rarely mixed with the lower classes.  His personal experience is reflected in his tales that often explore the limits of social mobility in a closed and unjust system. His tales express sympathy for the underdog and people who have been deprived chances because of their humble origins. As part of the Henry Collection of Sweepiana we have a number of beautiful editions of the tales, some of which are currently on display in Room 700.

The Brothers Grimm

The Brothers Grimm were two young German librarians whose collection of folk and fairy tales became the most famous of its kind in the Western world. They strove to collect authentic folk tales from across Germany and the first edition printed in 1812 comprised of 86 stories. By the final edition in 1857 the tales had grown to 210 and had evolved from their oral folk origins to something that suited the tastes of a more literary public. Despite their ambition to keep the tales true to their origins it was in fact Wilhelm Grimm’s interventions that make the tales what they are today.

Grimm’s Fairy Tales, Illustrated by Arthur Rackham

One of my favourite images is this one of Little Red Riding Hood, by Arthur Rackham in one of our Grimm’s Fairy Tale books. Anthropologists have studied over thirty five versions of Little Red Riding Hood and found variations of it all over the world. Whilst European versions tell of a little girl tricked by a wolf masquerading as her grandmother, in the Chinese version it is a tiger. In Iran the main character is changed to a boy. It was previously thought that that the tale originated in C17th France but it has been found that the variants share a common ancestor dating back over 2600 years. The tale may have been used to pass on tips for survival and spread across trading routes.

The Water Babies: A Fairy Tale for a Land Baby

This classic story was written in 1862 by the Reverend Charles Kingsley in response to the horrors of child labour in Victorian England and the publication of the controversial Origin of Species by Charles Darwin in 1859. Kingsley and Darwin were close friends and Darwin cited the support of Kingsley in his second edition as he felt that this would help lessen the accusations from the Church that he was trying to attack Christian beliefs. You can read more about how Kingsley incorporated the origins debate into The Water-Babies in this article by Rosalind White.

The Water-Babies, Limited Edition, Illustrated by Warwick Goble

The Water Babies fell out of favour with the public due to its prejudices against sections of society, including Jewish and Irish people. However, it was an important force in the campaign against child labour and a year after its publication parliament began a process that would ultimately lead to the 1864 Chimney Sweepers Regulation Act, which saved many children from a life of dangerous work.

The Water Babies, like the Hans Christian Andersen books, make up part of our Henry Collection and we have over twenty different editions, some of which are currently on display in Central Library as part of our Sweepiana exhibition. We have also loaned some to Abbey House for their exhibition so there are plenty of opportunities to see these wonderful books.

Japanese Fairy Tale Series

These tiny volumes are a little treasure trove of unusual tales that were produced by Tekejiro Hasegawa in the mid 1880’s. The books are printed onto crepe paper which gives them a distinctive look and feel. This use of crepe paper was incredibly popular with Western readers who thought it was exotic and liked the unique texture. Included in the series are the traditional Japanese Tales, The Little Peachling, the Tongue Cut Sparrow, and my favourite The Battle Between the Crab and the Monkey.

As C. S. Lewis said ‘Some day you will be old enough to start reading fairy tales again’ and where better to reacquaint yourselves with your old favourites than at the library. All these books and many more are available on request. Enjoy!

“We Smile”: A Curious Donation of Photographs

  • by Antony Ramm, Local and Family History, Central Library

We recently received a new addition to our collections: a photograph album featuring images of holidays in the North of England during 1920 and 1921. The album was donated to us in the hope we could identify the people depicted in the photos and then – perhaps – trace their descendants. The connection to Leeds itself is small, but significant—a studio portrait taken by a photographer on Woodhouse Lane and holiday trips to Potternewton and Roundhay Parks – among other places further afield.

A few names of some of the people depicted in these images are given as captions: Gill, Syme, Bottom, Dunn, Strafford. A search of various family history resources yielded only one possible clue – the employment of two servants with the Gill surname by the Syme family in Headingley.

The 1911 Census return for the Syme family – showing the presence of two domestic staff surnamed Gill. Taken from Ancestry.com (free in all Leeds Libraries)

And that tenuous connection is really all we have. So, we’re calling on members of the public to take a look through some selected images from this mysterious photograph album: do get in touch – on 0113 37 86982 or via localandfamilyhistory@leeds.gov.uk – if you recognise any of the people or places shown there. You can see the album in full by visiting the Local and Family History department of Leeds Central Library, and you can view further images of historic Leeds by browsing our Leodis archive.

Speed-dating our Library Treasures II: Small Books and Big Ideas

  • by Antony Ramm, Local and Family History, Central Library

You may recall that, during our 2016 Library Fest programme, we trialled a new event: Speed-date our Library Treasures. Put simply, this was an opportunity for the public to engage with a wide range of some of our most interesting and unique stock items, all curated by passionate Librarians, and in a decidedly non-traditional library environment (i.e. a pub).

We’re delighted to report that – such was the success of #speeddatetreasures – we took little hesitation in opting to run the whole thing again this year, as part of our recent 2017 Library Fest series. So, for those of you who were unable to make it, here is a brief run-through of the items we had out on show during the two sessions:

Oliver Twiss

Rhian, our Collections Manager, spoke about this fascinating 1830s edition of Dickens’ Oliver Twist, an edition with, as it were, “a twist”: this copy is, in fact, a pirated, plagiarised and parodic version of that well-known text, adapted by one Thomas Peckett Prest for a working-class audience hungry for cultural forms suited to their tastes. You can read more about Oliver Twiss on a previous blog post.

The Political Sway Pole

This political cartoon from the 1880 Parliamentary Election was introduced by Antony from our Local and Family History department. Depicting the five candidates for the Leeds seat, the cartoon forms part of a wider collection of over 200-similar images. Antony has previously given a talk on this collection, and you can see an edited version of his lecture notes and slides elsewhere on this blog.

Windyridge Manuscript

Phil, who works across the Local and Family History and Information and Research departments, led our ‘dates’ through the history and significance of a book that is – by any measure – one of the Treasures we are most honoured to hold in the Central Library: Willie Riley’s manuscript edition of his 1912 bestselling-novel Windyridge. Riley, from Bradford, based his story of the young artist and photographer, Grace Holden, on the area around Guiseley.

Phil is a familiar figure in the local history community, where he gives regular talks on the Central Library’s Treasures collections; in particular, a Cistercian Missal that most likely belonged to the library at Kirkstall Abbey.

The Book of Nouns

This tiny book bears more cultural, historical and intellectual weight than you might expect from its compact appearance. Ross, Librarian-Manager for the Local and Family History department, introduced the  The Book of Nouns and has this to say:

The Book of Nouns, or Things which may be seen is a miniature children’s book dating back to the very early 19th Century.

It measures only 6cm by 4.5cm and is about 1cm thick. Our copy was printed in 1802 by Darton and Harvey of 55 Gracechurch Street, London, but a note inside suggests the book was first published the year before. Its tiny pages alternate between short lists of things (‘a Mace, a Nest, Oaks, a Pink, a Quill, a Rake’) and beautiful engravings – not always of the same items.

So, for instance, you’ll find a turkey, a jackal, a well, a rook and an archer among the 64 images inside. Very occasionally, there’s also a brief fact, such as ‘The otter lives on fish, roots & plants’ but, for the most part, it’s up to you to guess why each item was included.

It’s not a dictionary (although from page 56 onwards it does suddenly decide to start following the order of the alphabet) and not everything inside is named. In fact, it took another old book to explain for us the way in which it’s intended to be used. ‘The use of this little trifle is to connect reading with intelligence,’ explains A Catalogue of Books, for the Amusement and Instruction of Youth (1801): ‘When each name is read, the thing it signifies should be shewn’.

Leeds Printed Broadsides

Karen, also from our Local and Family History department, brought along this fascinating collection of stories, songs and proclamations, gathered as it was by the eminent Leeds-folklorist Frank Kidson. Karen has this to say about this selection:

I chose for my Speed Dating item ‘Leeds Printed Broadsides’ which were collected by Frank Kidson, Leeds author, artist and folk song collector. Broadsides were a form of street literature, printed on one side only, and produced in large numbers on the early printing presses, and sold for as little as one old penny. They contained accounts of events, news, proclamations and songs or rhymes, and were sold in the streets and at fairs and other gatherings.

The special aspect of this collection is that they are all original prints from Leeds printing firms, such as Barr, Andrews, and Buchan, and some also have notes in Kidson’s own hand. He was about as much of a Leeds man as it possible to be, having been born in Centenary Street, just prior to the building of Leeds Municipal Buildings and Library, and on the site of what is now Victoria Gardens.

Circus Playbill

Just one from our large collection of Leeds theatre playbills and programmes, this particular selection, selected by Helen from our Local and Family History department, advertises the appearance in Leeds of a man made (even more) famous by The Beatles: Pablo Fanque. The story of Pablo’s time in Leeds is told in several previous blog posts.

Spare Rib

Finally, Sally, the Historypin Outreach Librarian for Leeds Libraries, brought along copies of the feminist journal Spare Rib. Here’s Sally on these inspiring pieces of political history:

Spare Rib is a second wave feminist magazine running from 1972 to 1993, of which in Central Library we have bound copies from 1976 to 1993.

The magazine was a reaction to – and rebellion against – traditional women’s magazines, which covered topics such as beauty, domesticity and romance. Spare Rib highlighted and protested issues previously un-touched by women’s magazines including sex, racism, eating disorders and women’s rights in foreign countries; along with passionate reader’s letters, culture reviews and listings.

Spare Rib is a treasure as it is an important piece of recent social and cultural history, inspiring a new generation of modern feminism, while also highlighting darker issues in modern society; issues mirrored in these magazines from thirty-years ago.

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Please get in touch to find out more about any of these items, or browse the Treasures, Special Collections and Research Guide sections of this blog to find out more about our holdings. And keep an eye out for Speed-dating III…coming soon!

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Hands-On Urban History #1: Little Woodhouse

  • by Antony Ramm, Local and Family History, Central Library

Last Saturday, as part of our 2017 Library Fest programme, we welcomed a group of budding urban historians and explorers to the Central Library, for a workshop where they would help staff from the Local and Family History department research and investigate a fascinating item that had been donated to us sometime in the last year.

The item in question was a folder containing a college project by one Peter Salmon, a student at the Leeds College of Art in the 1960s (and now an artist based in Canada). This folder had come to us after unrelated correspondence with a Library customer, Jane Bower, whose father had been Peter’s lecturer at the time (an interesting side note: Jane’s own family history is intriguing in itself, as she grew up in the famous Ashwood house of Headingley; she is due to give a talk for us on precisely that subject later this year. Jane can also be seen at the Leeds Grammar School in May, performing a play based on her father’s diaries).

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Peter’s focus in his project was a small group of old cottages on Little Woodhouse Street, situated just between Chorley Lane (still in existence) and Leighton Lane (no longer in existence); while Peter had been able to identify that the dwellings roughly dated from around 1670 (along with a detailed analysis of their architectural features; his main area of interest), we were keen to take his research a little further, primarily using the resources available in the Local and Family History department: books, maps, photographs, Census returns, Trade Directory entries, newspaper articles, and so forth.

c.1890 map showing Little Woodhouse area. The location of the cottages is indicated by the circle

c.1890 map showing Little Woodhouse area. The location of the cottages is indicated by the circle. Map sourced from the Tracks in Time website: www.tithemaps.leeds.gov.uk

We were lucky enough to have in attendance Dr Shane Ewen, Senior Lecturer at Leeds Beckett University, and an urban historian, whose book What Is Urban History? informed and contextualised our approach to this event (and who also runs thought-provoking Urban History workshops of his own). Shane kindly offered some introductory remarks on the subject of Urban History.

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Undated, Postcard view of Little Woodhouse Street, looking from Clarendon Road towards Caledonian Road. To the left is the end of Hyde Terrace, the wall has a message chalked on it ‘Errand Boys Rest’. On the right, a row of Old Houses with irregular roof lines can be seen, the junction with Leighton Lane is in the middle of the houses on the right (a single tall chimney can be seen behind). On the right edge is Chorley Lane. From Leodis.net

Following that short presentation, and some words from our Librarians introducing Peter’s project and our intended-aims on the day, attendees got to work searching for information about the cottages and their inhabitants over the last two-hundred years. We used as our starting point two photographs: one Peter took himself, and a very similar shot from our Leodis archive, showing the cottages in “Old Leeds”.

After that research was completed – including some fascinating Census finds on Ancestry.com – everyone present made their way out into Little Woodhouse itself, in search of any surviving signs of the cottages and their neighbourhood.

1881 Census return showing some of the Little Woodhouse cottages

1881 Census return showing some of the Little Woodhouse cottages

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Present-day Chorley Lane

And, wonderfully, while the buildings themselves have long-since disappeared – swallowed up as part of the development of Leeds General Infirmary – a trace of their presence could still be seen in their absence, in the way that it seemed possible to trace the path of the older, narrow, road that ran down and round in front of the houses along the line of the present-day passage; and the way that seeing the boundaries of that road enabled one to spot the likely location of the cottages themselves, in an empty space just beside. A wall on the side opposite that location seemed also to be of likely significance.

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The space just behind the car on the right of this photograph is the likely site of the Little Woodhouse cottages

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The wall opposite

Following that eye-opening encounter with the past (how many other mundane locations around the city also contain such echoes of history?), the group set-off on a fascinating tour of the wider Little Woodhouse area: taking in Little Woodhouse Hall, a terraced house inhabited at one stage by Edward Baines Jnr. and his family, the Thoresby Society‘s old home at Claremont, Denison Hall, the squares of Little Woodhouse and Hanover, Joseph’s Well and, finally, Centaur House.

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Woodhouse Hall

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House owned by Edward Baines Jnr.

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Denison Hall

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Late 19th-century residential housing near to Hanover Square

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Blue plaque opposite Woodhouse Square

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Joseph’s Well, former John Barran clothing factory

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Centaur House

Centaur House

Street map, near Centaur House. The location of the cottages is shown.

Street map, near Centaur House. The location of the cottages is shown

This was a thoroughly enjoyable and stimulating afternoon and plans are already underway for the next installment of our new Hands-On Urban History series. Please get in touch with us to register your interest in attending.

Resources (all available in the Local and Family History department)

Postscript

We were also fortunate to have Janet Douglas, author of several superb local history books, in attendance at the workshop. Janet directed our attention to a Yorkshire Evening Post article on the history of Little Woodhouse by Edmund Bogg, featuring a drawing of very the cottages in question – most likely by Bogg himself. The image below shows that article – click on the picture to access a zoom-able version.

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Exploring Lost Expeditions in the Collections at Leeds Central Library: A Multi-Sensory Storytelling Experience

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  • by Antony Ramm, Rhian Isaac and Ross Horsley, Central Library

Thousands of people visited Leeds Central Library during this year’s Light Night celebrations and over two hundred of those experienced our interactive exhibition – or, as we thought of it: a multi-sensory storytelling experience – dedicated to four stories of loss and obsession in 19th and 20th-century exploration, all based around books available in our collections. For anyone who missed this very well-received event, here’s a chance to experience it through words and images:

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Our intrepid ‘passengers’ started their journey in our boarding area. Here they were welcomed by our wonderful volunteer, Graham Smith, who encouraged each visitor to complete a mocked-up ‘boarding pass’ that reserved them a place on the next expedition. Then, once ‘aboard’, our groups were tasked with finding three intriguing books hidden in and among the card catalogue and the shelves of the collections in the Local and Family History department.

These books – which foreshadowed the later themes of the installation – were: volume 41 of the National Geographic journal, which outlined a surprisingly visual method of counting, as used by the Mayans; an account of some weird and wonderful Arctic iceberg ‘sculptures’; and the explorer Richard Burton’s translation of a 1753 document found in the Brazilian National Library, which tells of the (re)discovery of a mysterious lost city, deep in the Amazonian jungle; a city not seen again after that initial expedition and which launched a thousand fevered searches for its location across the ensuing centuries.

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Once each group had been shown the contents of those three books – and browsed a curated selection from our wider exploration collection – we journeyed on to the first lost expedition…

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Percy Fawcett: The Lost City of Z

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In this alcove we told the story of the famed British Explorer, Percy Fawcett, who went missing – along with his son Jack, and Jack’s friend Raleigh Rimmell, while searching for what Percy called the ‘Lost City of Z’. This ‘Z’ was the same city as described in the 1753 manuscript translated by Burton, and Fawcett believed it to have been the capital of an ancient American civilisation. Our installation was designed to invoke the poignant after-story of Percy’s wife, Nina. Alone and penniless in her grief, Nina turned increasingly to Spiritualism and the occult, employing a series of psychics and mediums to make contact with her missing husband and son. Nina’s desk is surrounded by images of maps and journal/newspaper articles detailing Percy’s disappearance and subsequent theories as to his whereabouts, while a presentation giving further background details played on the computer screen.

Books used to tell this story were Exploration Fawcett, a volume of Percy’s writings edited in the 1950s by his other son, Brian; and David Grann’s The Lost City of Z. Nina’s interest in the more extreme fringes of 19th and early 20th-century esoteric thought were represented by titles such as Madame Blavatsky’s The Secret Doctrine. Articles from the Geographic Journal, detailing Percy’s journey and disappearance were also present.

John Lloyd Stephens & Frederick Catherwood: Capturing Mayan Ruins

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From a story about explorers who disappeared looking for a lost city, to the tale of two who found one: in the second alcove, visitors were told the story of two men – John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood – who played a major role in launching the field of Mayan archaeology. Stephens, an American explorer, diplomat and writer; and Catherwood, a British artist, journeyed to Mexico in the early 1840s to record their impressions of Mayan ruins, even while those structures literally crumbled all around them. So determined were Stephens and Catherwood to permanently record what they saw that even the onset of malaria couldn’t stop their work: Catherwood continuing to sketch while protected by a mosquito net. Their achievements were recorded in their book Travels in Central America (two reference copies of which are available at the Central Library), a bestseller in its day and called “perhaps the greatest travel book ever written” by Edgar Allan Poe.

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Our display included an easel featuring a facsimile of a Catherwood sketch, a copy of Fabio Bourbon’s The Lost City of the Mayas: The Life, Art and Discoveries of Frederick Catherwood – and a working microscope, together with a slide containing a real mosquito; a feature which evoked simultaneous feelings of fascination and revulsion in most visitors…

Lady Jane Franklin and the Search for Sir John Franklin

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From the tropically-warm to the freezing-cold: our third alcove told the story of Lady Jane Franklin and her efforts to find out what happened to her husband, the explorer Sir John Franklin. In 1845, Sir John had captained two ships – the Erebus and the Terror – to the Arctic, in an attempt to find the fabled Northwest Passage. Sadly, his expedition vanished, with no word as to its whereabouts. Lady Jane – a fascinating figure in her own right, something of an outlier in 19th-century gender politics – raised sufficient money and support (from, among others, the US government and the British Navy) to fund numerous searches. One of those searches, by a man named John Rae, brought back evidence – leaked to The Times – that Franklin and his crew had all perished and that, shockingly, some had resorted to cannibalism in their final days. Feeling this to be an inhumane slur on her husband’s reputation, Lady Jane sent another expedition to (successfully) uncover contrary evidence; she then hired Charles Dickens to write an article refuting all the claims made against Sir John.

The Franklin story was told through a series of items intended to represent Lady Jane’s dressing room. These included an audio recording of a book based on Lady Jane’s life, a Victorian-era dress, a globe, a framed picture of her husband and copies of various letters sent and received by Lady Jane. Books and other material from our collections included accounts of Arctic exploration by expeditions sent to locate Sir John and, most interestingly, a map dating from 1849: addressed “to Lady Jane”, this shows the route of one such attempt to find her husband.

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George De Long, Gordon Bennett and the Fate of the USS Jeanette

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The ill-fated Franklin expedition attracted huge amounts of public attention in the mid-to-late 19th-century; and there wasn’t the same interest in any one Arctic exploration until thirty-three years later, when the USS Jeanette suffered a similar fate to that unfortunate earlier group. Setting sail in 1879, with the primary aim of finding the theorised Open Polar Sea (a variant on the earlier Northwest Passage) – and the secondary aim of finding Franklin’s ships – the USS Jeanette expedition was funded by James Gordon Bennett, the media tycoon who had sent Henry Stanley to “find” Dr Livingstone (who wasn’t actually lost) and, in doing so, had realised the value of creating, not just reporting, news.

Sadly, the Jeannette found itself trapped in crushing pack ice fairly early in its proposed route and the crew found themselves marooned a thousand miles north of Siberia with only the barest supplies and a seemingly impossible trek across the endless ice. Eventually, the party were separated by stormy weather during a crossing to the Siberian mainland; one group were rescued by the Evenks, a local people, but were unable to communicate the location of their colleagues. De Long and his party attempted to reach the nearest settlement but, faced with dwindling rations and the daily struggle with frostbite, sadly perished before a rescue expedition could reach them. However, De Long was a meticulous keeper of records and journals; these were later discovered and provided a wealth of information to scientists and other explorers about the climate and geography of the Arctic.

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To represent the De Long story we created an impression of De Long’s cabin in the Local and Family History safe, with suitably atmospheric sound-effects of ice-breaking and dogs howling. A projector displayed images of De Long and his crew, while various props combined to add to the Arctic and nautical imagery and theme. All of this was based on books available at the Central Library, including De Long’s posthumously-published account of his epic journey.

Concluding Remarks

We concluded our exploration by commenting on the heroism and bravery of those on these expeditions; and the manner in which their sacrifice brought positive, but usually unforeseen, benefits to the wider human tribe.

These stories were all told, or inspired, by books held in the Central Library collections; these are but a fraction of the total accounts of exploration available in the library service, however – and we finished by encouraging our listeners to take a deeper look at (to read more of) further stories of mystery and obsession contained within those pages…

Bibliography (all the books can be found at Central Library. Search our catalogue for more details)

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  • J.C. Beaglehole. The Life of Captain James Cook (1974)
  • Richard Burton. Explorations of the Highlands of Brazil (1869: 2 volumes)
  • Charles Darwin. Journal of Researches into the Geology and Natural History of the Various Countries Visited by HMS Beagle (1840)
  • Elisha Kent Kane. Grinnell Expedition in Search of Sir John Franklin (1857)
  • A. Kippis. A Narrative of the Voyages Round the World Performed by Captain James Cook (1883)
  • Anthony Murray-Oliver ed., Captain Cook’s Artists in the Pacific: 1769-1779 (1969)
  • National Geographic Magazine, Vol. XLI, 1922
  • A. Grenfell Price ed., The Explorations of Captain James Cook in the Pacific: As Told By Selections of His Own Journals, 1768-1779 (1969)
  • Henry Stanley. How I Found Livingstone: Travels, Adventures and Discoveries in Central Africa (1872)

Percy Fawcett

John Lloyd Stephens

  • Fabio Bourbon. The Lost Cities of the Mayas: The Life, Art and Discoveries of Frederick Catherwood (1999)
  • John Lloyd Stephens. Incidents of Travel in Yucatan (1843; illustrated with 120 engravings)
  • John Lloyd Stephens. Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan (1852)

Sir John Franklin

  • John Brown. The North-West Passage and the Plans for the Search for Sir John Franklin (1858)
  • Illustrated London News, Vol.6, 1845
  • Sir Francis Leopold McClintock. A Narrative of the Discovery of the Fate of Sir John Franklin and His Companions (1859)
  • Sir John Richardson et al., The Last of the Arctic Voyages; Being a Narrative of the Expedition in H.M.S. Assistance, Under the Command of Admiral Sir Edward Belcher In Search of Sir John Franklin, During the Years 1852-53-54 (1855)
  • Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of the H.M.S. Challenger During the Years 1873-76, Zoology, Vol. IV (1882)

George De Long

For more on accounts of Arctic exploration held at Central Library, see this research guide.

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