William Boyne and the Voices of History

Librarian Antony Ramm takes a look at the deep history behind the creation of a celebrated Leeds antiquarian “masterpiece”. This article has been written to accompany the publication of a new Research Guide at the Central Library, exploring our Leeds Antiquarian Collection

William Boyne

William Boyne was born in Leeds around 1814, to Thomas Boyne, a successful local businessman. Although William was increasingly involved in the family company, especially following his father’s death in 1849, his true passion lay in the collection of antiquarian material. What began as a hobby, a diversion from the grief of his wife’s death in 1842, eventually led Boyne to the creation of his expanded seven-volume edition of two classics of Leeds historical research, Ralph Thoresby’s Ducatus Leodiensis and Thomas Dunham Whitaker’s Loidis and Elmete. This was Boyne’s grangerised History of Leeds.

The Librarian and bibliographer, J.A. Symington, once employed in the Reference department of the Central Library, and who was interested in Boyne’s life and work, described the History thus:

The text reads: “Leeds will ever owe a great deal of gratitude to Mr. Boyne for, regardless of time or expense, he got himself to prepare a complete history of the town, and his effort, a masterpiece of antiquarian workmanship, is the most fitting monument the city can boast of to the memory of so illustrious a citizen.”

Most observers would no doubt agree with Symington: Boyne’s History is, indeed, a “masterpiece” of antiquarian collecting and presentation, and the people of Leeds should celebrate that achievement without question. That was certainly the case during a well-received showing of the History during our 2018 Library Fest programme. Some images from History itself can be seen on its dedicated page on this blog.

But we also wanted to get our attendees thinking more deeply about the nature of Boyne’s antiquarian collecting: the source of his content and the wealth used to purchase it. Doing so opens new perspectives on Leeds’ past, forcing us to question many of its accepted narratives.

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By Boyne’s own admission he would occasionally acquire material by literally cutting pages and plates from other books. While Boyne may have seen these acts of creative vandalism as utterly justified in the pursuit of his vision, modern audiences may feel differently, regretting instead the ensuing loss in the historical and literary record, wondering what other narratives and voices were diminished or extinguished so that Boyne could preserve and prioritise one particular worldview: that of a white, educated, middle-class Victorian male (that is to say: what would have appeared natural and inevitable to Boyne and his contemporaries as worth and not-worth keeping, appears to us now as utterly contingent and very partial indeed.)

Boyne’s admission that he cut the lower image from a longer engraving, to make it fit on the pages of his History.

The question here, then, is two-fold: firstly, it’s a broadly simple issue of weighing costs and benefits – asking whether Boyne’s creation was worth the destruction – but, beyond that, it’s also an issue about stories, and voices in the construction of historical narratives: who gets to speak and who is silenced.

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Which is where we must journey to the Boyne home in Little Woodhouse, named by William’s father for the location and the product – tobacco – that lay at the root of his family’s wealth and privilege: Virginia Cottage. The Boynes lived there for only a few years, but that naming tells us something very important about their complicity in an economic system with injustice at its very core: the importation, ‘finishing’ and distribution of tobacco.

9th June 1947. Picture shows Lyddon Hall on the north side of Cromer Road. The hall is facing the Catholic Chaplaincy and the view is of the east side of the house. Lyddon Hall was formerly known as Virginia Cottage. Steps lead up to the main entrance and there are flowering borders on either side. Trees can be seen in the front garden. (Leeds Library and Information Service, www.leodis.net)

Because, crucially, this was not just ‘any’ tobacco, but tobacco grown and harvested in the Virginian state of America, largely by men, women and children of African descent, held captive in perpetual bondage and derived any rights as legal persons, while suffering physical and emotional torment beyond most comprehension. That was the source of the Boyne family wealth, the money that bought them a life in the comfortable middle-class enclave of 19th-century Little Woodhouse – and a life in complete contrast to that existence endured (survivedresisted) by African-Americans forced to toil for masters both near and far.

The Old Plantation, c. 1790. Enslaved Africans on a South Carolinan plantation. By Unknown – http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/SlaveTrade/collection/large/NW01, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3450804

It was this same wealth which funded further changes of residence: first to Queen’s Square and, later, once William had inherited the company following his father’s death, to the Xanadu-like surroundings of ‘The Woodland’, or ‘Boyne House’, in Headingley.

This photograph possibly shows Boyne’s Headingley home, and can be found pasted at the front of J.A. Symington’s collection of material on Boyne and his life. Contact the Local and Family History department for access.

And it was that same wealth, again, which William would use to build the collection of antiquarian material that Symington, and later observers, would so uncritically celebrate, along with the achivements of the man himself.

Introduction to Boyne’s History, written by a previous Librarian

We, however, might prefer a different story around Boyne and his History, one that puts those hidden and unacknowledged voices from its past front-and-centre. This is not to say that we should approach Boyne’s work with an air of self-flagellation, denying its value – only that we should prioritise objective historical fact. The History as a physical item – undeniably beautiful and deserving of wider exposure – is one such historical fact, but so too is the process and the nature of its construction; the point being not to obscure those elements but, rather, ensure they are an essential – a central – part of the stories we tell about the object, its creator, the places and economic systems that produced both. This line of thinking applies far beyond the relatively narrow borders of Boyne’s own story, stretching out across the entire vista of Leeds and its history, asking us to take a closer look at the costs borne by those employed in – to offer just one example – the wealth-producing mills of John Marshall.

Work in Marshall’s Mill. Taken from A Day at a Leeds Flax Mill, in The Penny Magazine, December 1843

By doing so, by endeavoring to bring those neglected voices into the stories we tell about our collections (and, through them, the stories we tell about Leeds itself), we redeem the past in the present – if only, that is, for a fleeting moment.

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